All Topics

Sign Questions Answered

Answers about visibility, placement, value and more

Essential Sign Library

Essential content for anyone regulating or using signs

Academic Research

Research on the use, impact and value of signs

Browse All Sign Topics

Legislative updates, legal analysis and industry news

Legal Considerations in Sign-Code Development

Alan Weinstein serves on the Board of Directors of both the Academic Advisory Council for Signage Research and Education (AACSRE) and the Foundation for the Advancement of the Sign Industry (FASI), and he was a three-time presenter at the American Planning Association’s 2017 National Planning Conference. A professor at Cleveland State University’s Marshall College of […]

Sign Research Foundation Publishes Urban Wayfinding Planning and Implementation Manual

The Sign Research Foundation (SRF, formerly known as The Signage Foundation) has published its “Urban Wayfinding Planning and Implementation Manual,” as well as a corresponding, four-page Executive Summary. It cites five wayfinding case studies, as well as five financing sources for wayfinding programs. The full report can be viewed online at The Executive Summary […]

International Sign Association Case Studies Examine EMC Brightness

An updated International Sign Association publication, entitled “Night-time Brightness Level Recommendations for On-Premise Electronic Message Centers,” has been updated with case histories from some of the more than 200 communities that have adopted its suggestions. The 16-page publication explains why brightness measurements should be taken in “footcandles” rather than “nits.” You can view the entire […]

Guest Editorial in Local Publication Questions Wayfinding Signs’ Costs

A guest editorial in the “Renton (WA) Reporter” questions the cost of certain wayfinding signs, given the use of GPS and cell phones for directions. The article can be read online at

Wall Murals Enhance Two-Mile Transit Trip to Seattle

An article in the October 2017 issue of Signs of the Times magazine documents how a two-mile stretch of buildings, that parallel public-transit tracks leading into Seattle, have been decorated with murals through the efforts of more than 50 international artists. You can read the article online at

National Academy of Science Publishes Airport Wayfinding Book

The National Academies Press, which is the publishing arm of the National Academies of Science, has published a book entitled “Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities” as an Airport Cooperative Research Program. Officially, it’s called CRP Research Report 177. You can download a free PDF at The eight-chapter book spans […]

Planner Suggests Provisions for Preserving Historic Signs

The following article appeared in the April 1989 issue of Signs of the Times magazine. The original article was published in the November 1988 issue of PAS Memo , which was a monthly publication produced by the American Planning Association. It is now published six times a year online. By Peter H. Phillips, AICP In […]

Penn State Study Examines the Effect of Fonts

Penn State’s Philip Garvey, with the assistance of Wie-Yen Eie and Jennifer Klenna, conducted a study to determine which fonts are the most legible. Sixty-four subjects from 19-87 years of age viewed 64 displays using 33 fonts shown on a computer monitor. The results of this study appear in different formats. One report was published […]

A Research Overview of Sign Legibility and Conspicuity

The following information originally appeared in the June 2017 issue of “The Interdisciplinary Journal of Signage and Wayfinding,” an academic, peer-reviewed publication that is published twice a year by the Academic Advisory Council for Signage Research and Education (AACSRE). Entitled “Factors Affecting Sign Visibility, Conspicuity, and Legibility: Review and Annotated Bibliography,” the article can be accessed in […]

Overall Sign-Code Trends in 2015 at the State Level

The International Sign Association’s Kenny Peskin wrote an article for Signs of the Times’ magazine’s April 2015 issue in which he outlined some general sign-code trends in various states. You can access the entire article in Signs of the Times’ digital edition at